Modules

Introduction

In this tutorial, we look at how to use and define modules.

Modules are collections of definitions grouped together. This is the basic means to organise OCaml software. Separate concerns can and should be isolated into separate modules.

Prerequisites: Values and Functions and Basic Data Types and Pattern Matching

Basic Usage

File-Based Modules

In OCaml, every piece of code is wrapped into a module. Optionally, a module itself can be a submodule of another module, pretty much like directories in a file system.

Here is a program using two files: athens.ml and berlin.ml. Each file defines a module named Athens and Berlin, respectively.

Here is the file athens.ml:

let hello () = print_endline "Hello from Athens"

Here is the file berlin.ml:

let () = Athens.hello ()

To compile them using Dune, at least two configuration files are required:

  • The dune-project file contains project-wide configuration.
     (lang dune 3.7)
    
  • The dune file contains actual build directives. A project may have several dune files, one per folder containing things to build. This single line is sufficient in this example:
    (executable (name berlin))
    

After you create those files, build and run them:

$ opam exec -- dune build

$ opam exec -- dune exec ./berlin.exe
Hello from Athens

Actually, opam exec -- dune build is optional. Running opam exec -- dune exec ./berlin.exe would have triggered the compilation. Note that in the opam exec -- dune exec command, the parameter ./berlin.exe is not a file path. This command means “execute the content of the file ./berlin.ml.” However, the executable file is stored and named differently.

In a project, it is preferable to create the dune configuration files and directory structure using the dune init project command. Refer to the Dune documentation for more on this matter.

Naming and Scoping

In berlin.ml, we used Athens.hello to refer to hello from athens.ml. Generally, to access something from a module, use the module's name (which always starts with a capital letter: Athens) followed by a dot and the thing you want to use (hello). It may be a value, a type constructor, or anything the module provides.

If you are using a module heavily, you might want to open it. This brings the module's definitions into scope. In our example, berlin.ml could have been written:

open Athens
let () = hello ()

Using open is optional. Usually, we don't open a module like List because it provides names other modules also provide, such as Array or Option. Modules like Printf provide names that aren't subject to conflicts, such as printf. Placing open Printf at the top of a file avoids writing Printf.printf repeatedly.

open Printf
let data = ["a"; "beautiful"; "day"]
let () = List.iter (printf "%s\n") data

The standard library is a module called Stdlib. It contains submodules List, Option, Either, and more. By default, the OCaml compiler opens the standard library, as if you had written open Stdlib at the top of every file. Refer to Dune documentation if you need to opt-out.

You can open a module inside a definition, using the let open ... in construct:

# let list_sum_sq m =
    let open List in
    init m Fun.id |> map (fun i -> i * i) |> fold_left ( + ) 0;;
val list_sum_sq : int -> int = <fun>

The module access notation can be applied to an entire expression:

# let array_sum_sq m =
    Array.(init m Fun.id |> map (fun i -> i * i) |> fold_left ( + ) 0);;
val array_sum_sq : int -> int = <fun>

Interfaces and Implementations

By default, anything defined in a module is accessible from other modules. Values, functions, types, or submodules, everything is public. This can be restricted to avoid exposing definitions that are not relevant from the outside.

For this, we must distinguish:

  • The definitions inside a module (the module implementation)
  • The public declarations of a module (the module interface)

An .ml file contains a module implementation; an .mli file contains a module interface. By default, when no corresponding .mli file is provided, an implementation has a default interface where everything is public.

Copy the athens.ml file into cairo.ml and change its contents:

let message = "Hello from Cairo"
let hello () = print_endline message

As it is, Cairo has the following interface:

val message : string
val hello : unit -> unit

Explicitly defining a module interface allows restricting the default one. It acts as a mask over the module's implementation. The cairo.ml file defines Cairo's implementation. Adding a cairo.mli file defines Cairo's interface. Filenames without extensions must be the same.

To turn message into a private definition, don't list it in the cairo.mli file:

val hello : unit -> unit
(** [hello ()] displays a greeting message. *)

Note: The double asterisk at the beginning indicates a comment meant for API documentation tools, such as odoc. It is a good habit to document .mli files using the format supported by this tool.

The file delhi.ml defines the program calling Cairo:

let () = Cairo.hello ()

Update the dune file to allow this example's compilation aside from the previous one.

(executables (names berlin delhi))

Compile and execute both programs:

$ opam exec -- dune exec ./berlin.exe
Hello from Athens

$ opam exec -- dune exec ./delhi.exe
Hello from Cairo

You can check that Cairo.message is not public by attempting to compile a delhi.ml file containing:

let () = print_endline Cairo.message

This triggers a compilation error.

Abstract and Read-Only Types

Function and value definitions are either public or private. That also applies to type definitions, but there are two more cases.

Create files named exeter.mli and exeter.ml with the following contents:

Interface: exeter.mli


type aleph = Ada | Alan | Alonzo

type gimel
val gimel_of_bool : bool -> gimel
val gimel_flip : gimel -> gimel
val gimel_to_string : gimel -> string

type dalet = private Dennis of int | Donald of string | Dorothy
val dalet_of : (int, string) Either.t option -> dalet

Implementation: exeter.ml

type aleph = Ada | Alan | Alonzo

type bet = bool

type gimel = Christos | Christine
let gimel_of_bool b = if (b : bet) then Christos else Christine
let gimel_flip = function Christos -> Christine | Christine -> Christos
let gimel_to_string x = "Christ" ^ match x with Christos -> "os" | _ -> "ine"

type dalet = Dennis of int | Donald of string | Dorothy
let dalet_of = function
  | None -> Dorothy
  | Some (Either.Left x) -> Dennis x
  | Some (Either.Right x) -> Donald x

Update file dune:

(executables (names berlin delhi) (modules berlin delhi))
(library (name exeter) (modules exeter) (modes byte))

Run the opam exec -- dune utop command. This triggers Exeter's compilation, launches utop, and loads Exeter.

# open Exeter;;

# #show aleph;;
type aleph = Ada | Alan | Alonzo

Type aleph is public. Values can be created or accessed.

# #show bet;;
Unknown element.

Type bet is private. It is not available outside of the implementation where it is defined, here Exeter.

# #show gimel;;
type gimel

# Christos;;
Error: Unbound constructor Christos

# #show_val gimel_of_bool;;
val gimel_of_bool : bool -> gimel

# true |> gimel_of_bool |> gimel_to_string;;
- : string = "Christos"

# true |> gimel_of_bool |> gimel_flip |> gimel_to_string;;
- : string = "Christine"

Type gimel is abstract. Values can be created or manipulated, but only as function results or arguments. Just the provided functions gimel_of_bool, gimel_flip, and gimel_to_string or polymorphic functions can receive or return gimel values.

# #show dalet;;
type dalet = private Dennis of int | Donald of string | Dorothy

# Donald 42;;
Error: Cannot create values of the private type Exeter.dalet

# dalet_of (Some (Either.Left 10));;
- : dalet = Dennis 10

# let dalet_to_string = function
  | Dorothy -> "Dorothy"
  | Dennis _ -> "Dennis"
  | Donald _ -> "Donald";;
val dalet_to_string : dalet -> string = <fun>

The type dalet is read-only. Pattern matching is possible, but values can only be constructed by the provided functions, here dalet_of.

Abstract and read-only types can be either variants, as shown in this section, records, or aliases. It is possible to access a read-only record field's value, but creating such a record requires using a provided function.

Submodules

Submodule Implementation

A module can be defined inside another module. That makes it a submodule. Let's consider the files florence.ml and glasgow.ml

florence.ml

module Hello = struct
  let message = "Hello from Florence"
  let print () = print_endline message
end

let print_goodbye () = print_endline "Goodbye"

glasgow.ml

let () =
  Florence.Hello.print ();
  Florence.print_goodbye ()

Definitions from a submodule are accessed by chaining module names, here Florence.Hello.print.

Submodule With Signatures

To define a submodule's interface, we can provide a module signature. This is done in this second version of the florence.ml file:

module Hello : sig
 val print : unit -> unit
end = struct
  let message = "Hello"
  let print () = print_endline message
end

let print_goodbye () = print_endline "Goodbye"

The first version made Florence.Hello.message public. In this version it can't be accessed from glasgow.ml.

Module Signatures are Types

The role played by module signatures to implementations is akin to the role played by types to values. Here is a third possible way to write file florence.ml:

module type HelloType = sig
  val hello : unit -> unit
end

module Hello : HelloType = struct
  let message = "Hello"
  let print () = print_endline message
end

let print_goodbye () = print_endline "Goodbye"

First, we define a module type called HelloType, which defines the same module interface as before. Instead of providing the signature when defining the Hello module, we use the HelloType module type.

This allows writing interfaces shared by several modules. An implementation satisfies any module type listing some of its contents. This implies a module may have several types and that there is a subtyping relationship between module types.

Module Manipulation

Displaying a Module's Interface

You can use the OCaml toplevel to see the contents of an existing module, such as Unit:

# #show Unit;;
module Unit :
  sig
    type t = unit = ()
    val equal : t -> t -> bool
    val compare : t -> t -> int
    val to_string : t -> string
  end

The OCaml compiler tool chain can be used to dump an .ml file's default interface.

$ ocamlc -c -i cairo.ml
val message : string
val hello : unit -> unit

Module Inclusion

Let's say we feel that a function is missing from the List module, but we really want it as if it were part of it. In an extlib.ml file, we can achieve this effect by using the include directive:

module List = struct
  include Stdlib.List
  let uncons = function
    | [] -> None
    | hd :: tl -> Some (hd, tl)
end

It creates a module Extlib.List that has everything the standard List module has, plus a new uncons function. In order to override the default List module from another .ml file, we need to add open Extlib at the beginning.

Stateful Modules

A module may have an internal state. This is the case for the Random module from the standard library. The functions Random.get_state and Random.set_state provide read and write access to the internal state, which is nameless and has an abstract type.

# let s = Random.get_state ();;
val s : Random.State.t = <abstr>

# Random.bits ();;
- : int = 89809344

# Random.bits ();;
- : int = 994326685

# Random.set_state s;;
- : unit = ()

# Random.bits ();;
- : int = 89809344

Values returned by Random.bits will differ when you run this code. The first and third calls return the same results, showing that the internal state was reset.

Conclusion

OCaml, modules are the basic means of organising software. To sum up, a module is a collection of definitions wrapped under a name. These definitions can be submodules, which allows the creation of hierarchies of modules. Top-level modules must be files and are the units of compilation. Every module has an interface, which is the list of definitions a module exposes. By default, a module's interface exposes all its definitions, but this can be restricted using the interface syntax.

Going further, here are the other means to handle OCaml software components:

  • Functors, which act like functions from modules to modules
  • Libraries, which are compiled modules bundled together
  • Packages, which are installation and distribution units

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